This article traces the development of the law which gradually permitted negligence actions to be brought against the Crown. The House of Lords decision in Anns has had a durable legacy in Canada. It calls for characterizing the sphere of government activity in question as either political (not reviewable) or operational (reviewable). The model is, nevertheless, unwieldy and lacks standards for predictable application. The Supreme Court of Canada had occasion recently in the cases of Brown and Swinamer to craft a more effective approach to the issue of negligence liability for public authorities, but failed to do so. The authors submit that these two cases merely affirm Canadian judicial policy to stay the Anns course for now, notwithstanding the attendant weaknesses and uncertainties of it.
Governments are entitled to sue other persons for damage caused to their property by tortious conduct.
But when the shoe is on the other foot (when the government is defendant), it used to be that governments were not liable in tort for the damage their employees or decisions caused to another, whether intentional or by negligence.
Older frail adults may also become victims of this syndrome. In this study we report a case of an older adult with a diagnosis of dementia and her son being the perpetrator. We also highlight the clinical features that should alert the clinicians to this diagnosis as it has considerable impact on the victim’s health and consumes disproportionately large health care resource.
The perpetrator was usually female, tended to be over-involved and interested in medical details, often with a background in health care. Psychological assessments have identified perpetrators of MSbP in children as often having narcissistic or borderline personality disorders and a previous history of somatic or factitious disorders and of pathological lying.
The diagnosis of Munchausen by Proxy (MbP) is well recognised with children as the victims, but remains infrequently reported in later life. Older frail adults may also become victims of this syndrome. In this study we report a case of an older adult with a diagnosis of dementia and her son being the perpetrator. We discuss the diagnosis of MbP in older adults and review the available literature on MbP for this population. We also highlight the clinical features that should alert the clinicians to this diagnosis as it has considerable impact on the victim’s health and consumes disproportionately large health care resource.
The Kill Box MTTP reinforces kill boxes as three-dimensional areas used to facilitate the integration of joint fires while also being a permissive fire support coordination measure (FSCM) in accordance with JP 3-09, Joint Fire Support. The publication offers a detailed explanation of kill box employment and provides information to effectively organize, plan, and execute kill box procedures.